T-Lymphocyte & Innate Immune Cell Activation Assays

Lymphocyte and innate immune cell activation are integral to immune responses to foreign antigens. Xeno Diagnostics has experience with in vitro methods for characterizing these responses. The choice of an assay is dependent upon the immune status of the cells (primed or unprimed), the cell type (PBMC or lymphocytes), the antigen (biomaterial, protein, or chemical), and how the antigens are presented (native, haptens, or via loaded dendritic cells). The degree of cell activation that occurs in culture reflects the relative strength of the immune response and is quantified by measuring cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, or cell membrane activation markers.
Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR)
  • Coculture organ donor lymphocytes with allograft recipient lymphocytes to determine histocompatibility
    • Human allografts
    • Swine allografts (xenotransplantation)
    • Drug screening
T-dependent Antigen Activation
  • Bulk PBMC cultured with therapeutic biological proteins to screen for potential immunogenicity
    • Naive T cells
    • Sensitized T cells (vaccines)
    • Utilizes antigen presenting cells or dendritic cells
Leukocyte Inflammation
Biomaterial Reactivity
  • Bulk PBMC cultured with implantation biomaterials and screened for inflammatory cytokines or chemokines
    • Lymphocytes
    • Adherent Cells
    • Granulocytes
Mixed Lymphocyte Tumor Cell Culture (MLTuC)
  • Coculture host lymphocytes and tumor cells to determine T cell activation (immunity) to tumor cells
    • Cancer Drug Screening
    • Onco-Immune Therapy



Lymphocyte Transformation Test (LTT)
  • Bulk PBMC cultured with potential allergens such as heavy metals to determine presence of contact sensitivity
    • Sensitized T cells from host
    • Contact hypersensitivity testing