Recognition and Activation Assays

Recognition and Activation Logo

In order for our immune cells to eliminate tumors and cancerous tissue, the immune cells must first be activated and recognize tumor associated and tumor specific antigens (TAA and TSA) in order to mount a pro-inflammatory response. Thus, the challenge is two-fold: developing targeted therapies that have improved recognition of a specific cancer, and enhancement of T-cell activation. Historically, analysis of antigen recognition has focused on screening of TAA and TSA; however, newer therapies are investigating the use of adoptive cells (including CAR T-cells) to target specific cancers. After T-cells have recognized an antigen and activation has been initiated; activation and stimulation need to be maintained.  Cancerous cells have several mechanisms to hide from immune cells, including upregulation of certain cell surface markers (immune checkpoints) that suppress immune function.

Xeno Diagnostics offers a wide range of assays to test immune cell activation and enhancement in response to antigenic and allogeneic stimulation:

  • Antigen Recall – assess therapeutic enhanced response to antigenic stimulation
    • T memory cells (Tmem) can recognize a repeated exposure to antigens, including tumor associated antigens (TAA); and will initiate a pro-inflammatory response. In-vitro studies can approximate a TAA initiated reaction by use of tetanus toxin, and assess enhancement in response caused by immunotherapies.
  • T-Cell Activation/ Checkpoint Inhibitor – discover improved T-cell stimulation
    • Cancerous cells upregulate specific cell surface receptors (checkpoints) that play a role in immune tolerance; a mechanism which is normally important to prevent autoimmunity. However, cancer cells take advantage of these immune checkpoints to suppress and “hide” from T-cells. Checkpoint inhibitor therapies are an invaluable mechanism to prevent immune tolerance and enhance T-cell stimulation.
  • Cell Activation Pathways – investigate intracellular mechanism of action
    • Whether its T-cell or macrophage activation, Xeno Diagnostics has the capabilities to analyze intracellular targets including receptors, phosphorylated kinases, and mRNA in response to therapeutic interventions.

Xeno Diagnostics is a CLIA certified high complexity lab and adheres to GLP and GCLP standards. We have had years of experience helping clients navigate the regulatory landscape and produce high-quality assays, documentation, and reporting to fit the regulatory requirements for each stage of product development.